Minerals (lecture summary)

in order for something to be called a mineral it has to satisfy a few conditions
(PS i'm typing this very fast as i think about the summary i don't have time to go over this and tune it, so lets see what will happen in the next not more than 5 minutes of summarizing in a one shot a lecture i was listening to last night just before falling asleep, in fast i was falling asleep while listening to that lecture so i wonder if some of what i'll write here is truely frm the lecture and what came up a little afterwards while dreaming).

  1. Natural - if you made it its not a mineral it can be the exact same thing but it has to be originated by mother nature (you are not included in mother nature for this case although you yourself was created by mother nature so although you may think you are part of mother nature and thus can be thought as something which is natural you are not natural so you cannot create naturally minerals sounds weirdo also for me, in anyway it has to be created by mother nature).
  2. Solid - it has to be solid.  So if you read somewhere oil is a mineral call them and tell them they are wrong.
  3. Inorganic - organic stuff are based on carbon it should not be based on carbon.
  4. Organized - like crystal and stuff mother nature likes organization.
  5. More conditions i forgot since i heard the lecture.
 (if you are comming from computers background the above definition will sound weird).

Atomic number

  1. The number of prutons
Atomic mass

  1. Relates also to the number of the neutrons + prutons (mainly) as there are isotops (oxygen 16,17,18 (16 neutrons or 17 or 18 17 and 18 are called isotops because 99% of the stuff is 16 and this the one we breath i guess) therefore its usually a fraction because its taking into account hte realtive abundance of materials in nature including .
What atoms like

  1. 8 electors in the outer layer if they do not have this they will tr yto compensate with the below bonds! if they don't have it this is the reason why atomic bonds happen! less is more! not being perfect causes pretty much a lot if nature.
  2. All chemical reactions are connected only to the outer layer of the electrons!

Chemical bonds

There are something like 5 bonds i'll concentrate on what i remember
  1. Metal - electons are pretty free there compensating for lack of electorns in other atoms so they flow around asking which atom in not satified right now and then moving tp the next atom this is why metal is conductor the electrons move around there.
Now to the two more important bonds

  1. ionic - example solt you see its composed of two atoms one have 7 electorns in outer layer and the other one 1 electron in the outer layer before that 1 electorn layer it has 8 electrons, what do you think is perfect for them? one will give 1 electorn to another and they boht will have 8 electrons in outer layer isn't that great? (yes) however now both will not have a balance from electrons to prutons so they will have either a negative or positive charge (so they attrackt each other even more) and now as they are charged they are called ions - and thus came the name ionic bond.
  2. covalent bond - the more strongful bond it.  take a look at carbons they all have 4 electrons in outer layer and in previous layers only 2 they cant give electrons ionic bond will give them nothing practical to do.   so they share their electons each with another so each has 4 together if they share 8 in outer layer.  co - valent - co - cooperation that's where the name is from.  (valent in french worth) is its worth for them to cooperate.