Apache Tomcat Profiling and CPU Tuning and Java profiling in general on Linux

performance tuning and guide and for linux

understanding linux cpu utilization

important! note you know the number of CPU X Cores in your server cat /proc/cpuinfo

Linux monitoring system with sar IO, network, CPU, memory

profiling in production

Identifying which Java Thread is consuming most CPU
I didn’t come up with this. I was shown how to do this by an esteemed college at work.
Most (if not all) productive systems doing anything important will use more than 1 java thread. And when something goes crazy and your cpu usage is on 100%, it is hard to identify which thread(s) is/are causing this. Or so I thought. Until someone smarter than me showed me how it can be done. And here I will show you how to do it and you too can amaze your family and friends with your geek skillz.

monitoring in production (and other envs...)

* run top
* press Shift-H to enable Threads View
* get PID of the thread with highest CPU
* convert PID to HEX
* get stack dump of java process
* in stack dump look for thread with the matching HEX PID.

This might be a little old, but here's what I did to kinda merge top and jstack together. I used two scripts, but I'm sure it all could be done in one.
First, I save the output of top with the pids for my java threads into a file and save the jstack output into another file:
top -H -b -n 1 | grep java > /tmp/top.log
jstack -l `ps fax | grep java | grep tomcat | sed "s/ *\([0-9]*\) .*/\1/g"` > /tmp/jstack.log
Then I use a perl script to call the bash script (called cpu-java.sh here) and kinda merge the two files (/tmp/top.log and /tmp/jstack.log):
system("sh cpu-java.sh");
open LOG, "/tmp/top.log" or die $!;
print "PID\tCPU\tMem\tJStack Info\n";
while ($l = <LOG>) {
    $pid = $l;
    $pid =~ s/root.*//g;
    $pid =~ s/ *//g;
    $hex_pid = sprintf("%#x", $pid);
    @values = split(/\s{2,}/, $l);
    $pct = $values[4];
    $mem = $values[5];
    open JSTACK, "/tmp/jstack.log" or die $!;   
    while ($j = <JSTACK>){
        if ($j =~ /.*nid=.*/){
            if ($j =~ /.*$hex_pid.*/){
                $j =~ s/\n//;
                $pid =~ s/\n//;
                print $pid . "\t" . $pct . "\t" . $mem . "\t" .  $j . "\n";
    close JSTACK;
close LOG;
The output helps me to find out which threads are hogging my cpu:
PID     CPU Mem JStack Info
22460   0   8.0 "main" prio=10 tid=0x083cb800 nid=0x57bc runnable [0xb6acc000]
22461   0   8.0 "GC task thread#0 (ParallelGC)" prio=10 tid=0x083d2c00 nid=0x57bd runnable 
22462   0   8.0 "GC task thread#1 (ParallelGC)" prio=10 tid=0x083d4000 nid=0x57be runnable 
22463   0   8.0 "GC task thread#2 (ParallelGC)" prio=10 tid=0x083d5800 nid=0x57bf runnable 
22464   0   8.0 "GC task thread#3 (ParallelGC)" prio=10 tid=0x083d7000 nid=0x57c0 runnable
Then I can go back to /tmp/jstack.log and take a look at the stack trace for the problematic thread and try to figure out what's going on from there. Of course this solution is platform-dependent, but it should work with most flavors of *nix and some tweaking here and there.

Measure network bytes in out

sar -n DEV 1 100

Count number of TCP connection close (FIN)

tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 1!=0' -w result.txt
wc -l results.txt

Method for finding high cpu methods without profiler simulate hprof

Ideally you can use a profiler to track down the problem. If you can't use a profiler in the environment it's in (like production) then try to reproduce it somewhere else and attach a profiler there. Often that can be difficult though, so here's a trick I've used a number of times to find the cause of CPU utilization in production from the command line:
watch -n1 'jstack [pid] | grep -A 1 RUNNABLE | grep -v RUNNABLE | grep -v \\-\\- | grep -v socketRead0 | grep -v socketAccept`
If you watch this for a short period of time you might see some common methods being called. Next grab a full jstack output to a file:
jstack [pid] > jstack.log
Now search the file for one of the methods that you saw showing up frequently. From its stack trace you can usually find the code responsible for grinding the CPU. If nothing shows up then perhaps your time is going to excessive garbage collection and you simply need to increase memory. You can use:
`jmap -heap [pid]`
To get a better idea of memory usage. Better yet you can attach jvisualvm or a commercial profiler (likeYourKit) to see it graphically over time. I've also used watch -n1 'jmap -heap [pid]' on occasion.

Tomcat tuning external resources